Wheat is a staple food cultivated for its cereal grain. Wheat plants show remarkable genetic variation. Some species of wheat are diploid, but many are polyploids, with four or six pairs of chromosomes. Certain wheat genes have a positive influence on crop yields, such as the dwarfing genes that allow the carbon fixed during photosynthesis to be diverted towards seed production and prevent lodging. The sequencing of the wheat genome and its analysis is valuable for developing an understanding of wheat genome variation, making crosses and alien progression, analyzing evolutionary biology, etc. Identifying the genes responsible for growth, energy production and metabolism also facilitate the breeding of transgenic wheat. Such wheat may be selected for good quality, abiotic stress tolerance and disease resistance, besides high grain yield. This book includes some of the vital pieces of work being conducted across the world, on various topics related to the genetics and breeding of wheat. It unfolds the innovative aspects of wheat breeding and biotechnology, which will be crucial for the progress of this field in the future. It will provide comprehensive knowledge to the readers.